Energy for a vertical city

​​Warmtenetwerk Magazine
Klaas de Jong
Autumn, 2015

A challenging construction project

The striking building was designed by Rem Koolhaas and the project had its fair share of setbacks. The project partners started making preparations in 1998, but the project was put on hold after the attack on the World Trade Center on 9/11 and was not restarted until 2006. Construction was finally started in 2009, despite the financial crisis that began the year before. Four years later, on 15 November 2013 at exactly 12.00 p.m., one of the Netherlands’ highest and biggest buildings was completed. The construction of 160,000 m2 of floor area on a piece of land of 5,500 m2 was a technical and logistical marvel. As many as 800 workers were active on this tiny patch of land by the water at any one time, which required very tight scheduling of all the cranes, platforms, other equipment and materials deliveries.

The property developer wanted an extremely sustainable building, which was achieved by combining various functions for more social cohesion, creating an underground bicycle storage, ensuring efficient public transport connectivity, joining the district heating system, designing a cooling system using water from the river Maas and installing a bio CHP plant.

The energy supply system is an example to other projects. The Rotterdam pilot project (called the The Vertical City) is part of the European CELSIUS Smart Cities programme.

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District energy: power for cities the sustainable way

The future of energy distribution is modern district energy. Integrated systems pipe water and steam around a city to heat and cool buildings, producing electricity along the way and increasingly integrating renewable energy. District energy systems (DES) are exceptionally energy-efficient, leveraging energy that is typically lost and using diverse energy sources for multiple buildings. DES could be the key to decarbonising the built environment, transitioning to renewable energy and limiting global temperature change to below 2oC.

To transition to modern district energy, we need to know where and how thermal resources are being used. The EU-funded STRATEGO project has published the Pan-European Thermal Atlas (PETA), an interactive map with data on regional and European thermal resources and demand. Governments can use this information to implement National Cooling and Heating Plans (NCHPs), which are a European Commission obligation. The CELSIUS project, meanwhile, has resources until March 2017 to support cities in implementing and further developing local district energy systems. Interested cities can join CELSIUS here.

UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon launched the Global Energy Efficiency Accelerator Platform to scale up energy efficiency policy, action and investment and to fast-track energy efficiency internationally. The Platform provides technical assistance, support and public-private sector collaboration to bring policymakers and stakeholders together to effect real change. Partners in this process, ICLEI, UNEP and WRI invite local governments to become involved in the Buildings Energy Accelerator and the Global District Energy in Cities Initiative (DEA). Involved cities can showcase their city’s leadership at the COP21 Buildings Day, 3 December 2015, where the results of this call to action will be launched with further information on the support, training and financing the platform will offer. For more information, download the Call to Action.

​​Göteborg förebild för mer fjärrvärme i Europa

Ann-Sofie Borglund
December, 2013

I Göteborg har 90 procent av flerbostadshusen och lokalerna fjärrvärme. Den genomsnittliga siffran i Europa är 12 procent. Nu ska det bli ändring på detta. Göteborgs stad och Göteborg Energi leder EU-projektet Celsius vars mål är att fler städer i Europa ska nyttiggöra överskottsvärme för att värma, men också kyla, sina fastigheter. 50 nya städer ska ansluta sig till projektet innan 2017.

Celsius är en del av EU-initiativet Smart Cities som finansierades av EU:s sjunde ramprogram för forskning. En av de bakomliggande drivkrafterna med klimat- och energiprojekten i programmet är att de ska leda till att EU-länderna klarar 20/20/20-målen, det vill säga EU:s tre övergripande miljömål, till 2020.

-Det handlar om att visa upp goda exempel och utifrån dem arbeta praktiskt och skala upp dem. För fjärrvärmen är det inte framförallt teknisk innovation som behövs utan innovation rörande acceptans, marknader och affärsmodeller, säger katrina Folland på Göteborgs Stad och koordinator för Celsius.

I projektet ingår även partnerstäderna London, Rotterdam, Genua och Köln. I dessa städer (samt Göteborg) så har man valt ut 17 bra fjärrvärmelösningar där man nyttiggör överskottsenergi som sedan används till fjärrvärme eller fjärrkyla. Nio av dessa projekt finns i Göteborg. Dessa ska användas för demonstration. I de fem städer som ingår i projektet kommer man även att bygga nya demonstrationsprojekt som ska inspirera andra städer i Europa att satsa på fjärrvärme och fjärrkyla.

Finansiering ett problem

-I London har man startat ett projekt i stadsdelen Islington och där tar man tillvara värme från elnätstationer och från tunnelbanan, vilket är ett exempel på bra systemtänk, säger Jonas Cognell på Göteborg Energi och projektledare i Celsius.

Både Katrina Folland och Jonas Cognell har sedan Celsius-projektet startade i juni märkt ett stort intresse från många europeiska städer att vilja satsa på fjärrvärme, men också fjärrkyla. Det som de ser som det största hindret för att europeiska fjärrvärmeprojekt inte ska bli verklighet är att det är svårt att få investeringsmedel till infrastruktursatsningar av detta slag.

-Samtidigt är klimatfrågan allt mer aktuell och dessutom ser allt fler att energikostnaderna blir allt dyrare, vilket ändå talar för att många av satsningarna kommer att bli av, säger Katrina Folland.

​​​​​Billigare energi akut

-Att satsa på fjärrvärme och samtidigt ta hand om överskottsenergi är både bra för miljön och leder till sänkta energikostnader över tid. Detta är något som blir allt viktigare. I England talar man nu om “energy poverty”, vilket innebär att husägare inte har råd att betala sin uppvärmning, så för vissa är efterfrågan på billigare energi riktigt akut, avslutar Jonas Cognell.​

​Waste heat from the Tube will help to warm hundreds of homes

​A pioneering new deal announced today will capture waste heat from London Underground tunnels and an electrical substation to help warm homes and cut energy bills.​

The project – the first of its kind in Europe – is a partnership between Islington Council, the Mayor of London Boris Johnson, UK Power Networks and Transport for London.

The scheme will be run through Islington Council’s innovative Bunhill Heat and Power heat network, which already supplies more than 700 homes in Islington with greener heating and is set to reduce the costs of heating for local people.

Under the new project the network will be expanded to capture and utilise two local sources of waste heat, one from a London Underground ventilation shaft and the other from a sub-station owned and operated by UK Power Networks. The expansion will also see at least a further 500 homes connected to Islington’s heat network.

London Underground generates large amounts of heat, which will be captured from a nearby Northern Line vent and piped into the heat network which warms local homes.

Matthew Pencharz, the Mayor of London’s Senior Advisor on Environment and Energy, said: “We need to do everything possible to create a more secure, cost-effective and sustainable heat and power supply for London. By supporting locally sourced energy and heat networks which can reduce bills and lower carbon emissions, we can not only save money but also drive innovation, jobs and growth in this burgeoning sector.”

Cllr Richard Watts, Leader of the Council, said: “The expanded Bunhill Heat Network will cut energy bills for hundreds more local people. With energy prices going up and up, it’s vital we do what we can to cut bills. It’s all part of the Council’s work to help people manage the rising cost of living. Last winter was one of the coldest for decades and record energy prices meant many families on fixed incomes spent it in misery, unsure whether to heat or eat.”

Cllr Rakhia Ismail, Islington Council’s executive member for sustainability, said: “Recycling heat from London Underground and the electrical network are exciting new ideas and a boost to our work to tackle fuel poverty and make Islington a fairer place. This cheaper energy scheme is greener too – local communities will see CO2 emissions drop by around over 500 tonnes each year.”

The Mayor of London is keen to encourage more locally produced heat and power from smaller generators like Bunhill and to pioneer further projects that use existing sources of waste heat in the capital, rather than allowing it to be wasted by just releasing it into the atmosphere. The Mayor has produced a detailed assessment of these opportunities across London in a new study into London’s untapped heat resources ‘The Secondary Heat report’.

Martin Wilcox, head of future networks at UK Power Networks, said: “We are carrying out a feasibility project exploring the potential to capture waste heat from one of our high voltage electricity substations and use it to warm local homes for the first time.

“If it is successful there could be potential to replicate this and increase access to low carbon, low cost energy in other parts of the capital because we have electricity substations dotted throughout London which keep the lights on for millions of homes and businesses.”

The project is part of the larger European Union co-funded CELSIUS project. The CELSIUS project is a partnership of five EU cities and aims to demonstrate how the efficiency and performance of district heating systems can be improved by focusing on the opportunity that they offer for capturing and utilising sources of waste heat that are generated within cities.

Heat networks provide the necessary infrastructure for utilising a range of waste and renewable heat that is generated within a city and this can play an important part in helping lower heating bills, reduce carbon emissions and make the capital more self-sufficient in energy.

This demonstration project has been funded by £2.7m from Islington Council who own and run the network, and £1m from the European Union, along with backing from the Mayor, UK Power Networks and Transport for London / London Underground.​

The Mayor has targets to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 60% and produce 25 per cent of London’s energy from local sources both by 2025. He is working to develop decentralised energy and district heating networks and as part of this is developing a new scheme that will give local electricity producers, for example from Combined Heat and Power Plants, a better return on the electricity that they sell.

Notes to editors​​
​Bunhill Heat and Power is a pioneering energy network, run by Islington Council, which opened in November 2012 and produces cheaper, greener heat for hundreds of local homes.​

The heat network is currently fed by a Combined Heat and Power energy centre which produces both electricity and heat. In the same way that we use heat from a car engine to keep us warm when driving, the energy centre uses the heat created from producing electricity to help heat buildings and provide hot water.

The network has 1.4 miles of pipes which carry the heat to local housing estates and a leisure centre. Heat from the London Underground will be captured and added to this network​​.​

For a video on Bunhill Heat and Power please see, or for more information see

The CELSIUS Project is co-funded through the Seventh Framework Programme for Research and Innovation and is being led by the City of Gothenburg. The project has 21 partners from 5 cities: Gothenburg, Cologne, Genoa, London and Rotterdam. It is a demonstrator project that is highlighting new and innovative technologies and approaches, including the capture and utilisation of waste heat, that will help the large-scale roll-out of district heating and cooling projects across the EU. It will not only address technical issues and barriers but also other issues identified as barriers to the large-scale roll-out of district heating and cooling systems such as from the social, political, administrative, legal and economic perspective.

A detailed assessment of waste heat sources in London, undertaken by Buro Happold for the Greater London Authority, is available at:​

​​Sources of heat include: industrial and process sources such as power stations, industrial processes (such as chemical industries, clinical waste incinerators and food producers), building cooling systems and refrigeration (such as offices, supermarkets and data centres), sewerage systems and water treatment works, London Underground tunnels and electricity substations; and environmental sources – air, ground, water (that retain solar heat​).

Sources of heat include: industrial and process sources such as power stations, industrial processes (such as chemical industries, clinical waste incinerators and food producers), building cooling systems and refrigeration (such as offices, supermarkets and data centres), sewerage systems and water treatment works, London Underground tunnels and electricity substations; and environmental sources – air, ground, water (that retain solar heat​​).

In March the Mayor of London made an application to Ofgem for a new type of electricity supply licence, sometimes known as Licence Lite. This will enable the Greater London Authority to sell electricity produced by London boroughs and other public sector owners of systems producing heat and power locally (decentralised energy systems). The Mayor is working with Ofgem and the Department of Energy and Climate Change to bring this new route to market by early 2014​.

The Mayor of London’s planning rules are also driving investment in decentralised energy systems. The London Plan supports the development and promotion of decentralised energy and district heating networks as an important part of London’s energy infrastructure and these should be developed as a priority in borough local development frameworks (Policy 5.5 DECENTRALISED ENERGY NETWORKS). See more at:​​​​


Energie aus Abwasser nutzbar gemacht

Mit Abwasser abgeleitete Wärme aus Kanälen mittels Wärmetauschtechnik nutzbar zu machen, um damit größere Gebäudekomplexe oder ganze Stadtviertel umweltfreundlich zu beheizen, das klingt in Zeiten des Klimawandels vielversprechend.

Technisch ist das Verfahren nicht neu. Doch die bislang mit dem Abwasser abgeleitete Wärme aus Kanälen mittels Wärmetauschtechnik nutzbar zu machen, um dam​it größere Gebäudekomplexe oder ganze Stadtviertel umweltfreundlich zu beheizen, das klingt in Zeiten des Klimawandels vielversprechend. Dieses Ziel verfolgt das auf vier Jahre angelegte EU-Projekt „Celsius“, das zur Smart-City-Initiative gehört und an dem neben Köln fünf weitere europäische Städte beteiligt sind, darunter London, Rotterdam und Göteborg. Celsius will neue regenerative Techniken zur Wärme- und Kälteversorgung entwickeln, um so mittelfristig den CO2 -Ausstoß bei der Energiegewinnung zu reduzieren.

Am Donnerstag nahmen Vertreter eines Konsortiums aus Rheinenergie, Fachhochschule, Stadtentwässerungsbetrieben und Stadt an der Otto-Lilienthal-Schule in Wahn die erste Pilotanlage für Köln in Betrieb. Sie wird fortan die Realschule und das benachbarte Maximilian-Kolbe-Gymnasium mit Wärme versorgen. Die zu beheizende Fläche liegt bei 21 650 Quadratmetern, die Jahreswärmeleistung der Anlage bei rund 1,2 Millionen Kilowattstunden, was dem Wärmebedarf von 70 Einfamilienhäusern entspricht.

Neben dem Projekt in Wahn will die Rheinenergie in den kommenden Monaten noch zwei weitere Anlagen an Schulen in Mülheim und Nippes in Betrieb nehmen, um dort unterschiedliche Wärmegewinnungstechniken zu testen. In einem weiteren Schritt soll die Technik ab 2014 an weiteren Gebäudetypen erprobt werden. „Allein an diesem Standort werden wir pro Jahr auf diese Weise etwa 170 Tonnen Kohlendioxid einsparen“, sagt Rheinenergie-Vorstand Thomas Breuer. Die Investitionskosten von rund 650 000 Euro werden etwa zur Hälfte aus EU-Mitteln efördert. Noch sei das Ganze mangels Masse „nicht wirtschaftlich zu betreiben“, sagt Breuer. „Aber wir testen aus, ob und wie diese Form moderner Nahwärmeversorgungstechnik unser nachhaltiges Portfolio bei der Fernwärme ergänzen kann.“

Grob vereinfacht, funktioniert die Technik so: In der 15 bis 20 Grad warmes Wasser führenden Kanalleitung liegt eine Art Metallwanne mit zwei Schichten. Zwischen diesen fließt kühleres Wasser, das sich auf diese Weise erwärmt und dann in einen Heizkessel geleitet wird, der mit einer Wärmepumpe gekoppelt ist. Diese bezieht drei Viertel ihrer Energie aus dem Kanalwasser. Zusätzlich angeheizt werden muss der Kessel nur noch bei Extremtemperaturen, was Energie spart. (mdo)​​​ ​

​​Fjärrvärme sänker Danicas utsläpp med 75 procent

I ett spännande ​samarbete mellan Göteborg Energi AB och Stena Line blir Stena Danica första fartyg som ansluts till fjärrvärmenätet. Befintlig teknik ska användas på ett helt nytt sätt och resultatet blir att utsläppen av koldioxid minskar med ungefär 75 procent, från cirka 800 ton till 195 ton koldioxid per år. Nu ska projektet inspirera andra rederier.

-Det är första gången som fjärrvärme ansluts till ett fartyg som är i drift och lämnar land med jämna mellanrum. Anslutningarna behöver kopplas ur, samtidigt som de måste kunna följa fartygets rörelser, säger Johan Henrikson, Key Account Manager på Göteborg Energi.

Stena Line investerar cirka 1 miljon kronor i projektet. Dessutom får man ett visst EU-stöd. Investeringen kommer att betala sig inom ett par år genom minskade energikostnader. Dessutom blir miljövinsterna stora.

-Med fjärrvärme får vi bort användningen av dieseldrivna ångpannor för uppvärmning av resenärs- och besättningsutrymmen när fartyget ligger i land. På sikt kommer vi även att använda fjärrvärmen för varmvatten och för att hålla motorerna varma. Det ger framför allt mindre koldioxidutsläpp, men reducerar även buller. Med tanke på vårt centrala läge är det särskilt viktigt, säger Ingemar Sörensson, fartygsinspektör på Stena Danica.

Stena Danica trafikerar Göteborg-Fredrikshavn med två turer varje dygn. Ytterligare båtar kan komma att anslutas i framtiden, men först ska Stena Danica bli ett referensobjekt som följs och utvärderas av de deltagande städerna i EU-projektet.

​Del i ​Celsius-projektet
​Fjärrvärme till fartyg är en del i EU-projektet Celsius, som är ett EU-projekt där Göteborg tillsammans med London, Rotterdam, Genua och Köln ska inspirera 50 europeiska städer att ta vara på spillvärme i fjärrvärmesystem. Syftet är att påskynda omställningen till ett hållbart samhälle. Projektet startades den 10 juni och det leds av Göteborgs Stad och Göteborg Energi på uppdrag av EU-kommissionen. ​